Written by Deepak Kumar Nayak and Aryan Pratyush Nayak and Guided by Dr. Anand Agarwal.
The human heart is divided into four chambers. The right and left upper chamber is known as the atrium. The right and the left lower chamber is known as ventricles. Both the right and left chambers of the heart are separated by a muscular wall called the Septum.
The right atrium gets separated from the left atrium by the atrial Septum, while the right ventricle is separated from the left ventricle by the ventricular Septum.
A ventricular septal defect generally refers to a condition in which a hole develops between the right and left ventricles.
As a result, the hole allows the oxygenated blood to transfer from the left to the right ventricle of the heart and get mixed with the deoxygenated blood. This mixed blood then recirculates to the lungs instead of other body parts, causing the ventricles to work harder. Gradually, the pumping capacity of the ventricles gets reduced, and it can no longer pump.
The risk of this defect depends on the size of the hole present in the Septum.
The Ventricular septal defect is primarily a congenital heart issue, which means that this
particular problem is visible right since infancy and may carry on for the longer part of life.
Symptoms to Look Out For:
Significant symptoms are more observed among infants, which include:
- Fast breathing or breathlessness.
- Poor appetite and eating disorder.
- Easy tiring for the baby and inactivity.
Most of these symptoms aren’t easy to be detected in
infants, and one can see any irregularity of heart function when the infant ascends into childhood. Hence any parent should be cautiously observing for sure
signs and symptoms among their children while they are in their early phases of childhood:
these symptoms can be-
- less bodyweight as of age.
- breathlessness in case of physical activity or while crying.
- easy tiring while playing or while being involved in physical activities
Although this disease is primarily a congenital issue, it still needs to be counted to develop the deformity in adulthood. It may so happen that the particular person may have a massive heart attack which may weaken the muscles of the heart’s wall and make way for a hole. There may be many symptoms that attribute to such a condition:
- shortness of breath while lying.
- irregular heartbeat.
- fatigue and weakness.
Since the disease is attributed to genetic causes, it makes room for some necessary preventive measures, some of which, if appropriately followed during pregnancy, can give up better results:
- EARLY PARENTAL CARE : early consultation with the doctor right during pregnancy can help very much with the baby’s health as VSD in many cases is detected duRing ultrasound scans of the mother.
An early talk with the doctor may be fruitful as it would lay in a possible and primary direction of treatment for the baby if it suffers from it.
- THE INCLUSION OF A BALANCE DIET: The fetus feeds on what the mother takes, and hence the mother must take all possible and necessary nutrients in the right amounts. Proper diet by the mother would ensure that the fetus has an appropriate supply of essentials for its desired and adequate development.
- REGULAR EXERCISE: Mothers with consultation from the doctor should lay out a proper exercise plan in their daily routine. This exercise plan should make sure that the mother is kept fit at all times, resulting in appropriate growth for the fetus.
- AVOIDING INTOXICATING FACTORS: The mother should make sure that she doesn’t get any intoxication for alcohol or nicotine in her body while pregnant. Intoxication can primarily affect the
development of the fetus and may hinder the proper maturing of the organs, including the heart.
In conclusion, like all other cardiovascular disorders, ventricular septal defect needs special care and attention. Most ventricular septal defects are minor, which can be treated with medications. But in rare cases, if the hole is large, it may lead to congestive heart failure and even death if improperly managed.